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川消:消防管道沟槽连接如何选材?

来源:http://www.cx-fire.com/ 日期:2024-05-10

管道沟槽连接如何选材?

How to select materials for pipeline trench connections?

  管道沟槽连接技术兴起于20世纪50年代的美国,90年代末引入。此后,以其安装便捷、质量可靠、经济等突出优点,迅速被国内市场所接受和推广。在法规政策的积极引导下,目前该技术已广泛应用于消防给水、生活给水、空调、污水处理、石油化工、热电及军工等多个领域[1],并逐步取代法兰和焊接这两种传统的管道连接方式,成为气、液管道连接的首推技术。虽然管道沟槽连接技术推广应用了较长时间,但由于相关人员的认识不足、缺乏经验、疏于管理等多方面原因,导致管件松脱、接头渗水等质量通病多有发生。本文将从材料选择、安装工艺、支(吊)架设置等角度,分析管道沟槽连接质量问题的产生原因,并就确保管道沟槽连接质量提出见解与体会。

The pipe trench connection technology emerged in the United States in the 1950s and was introduced to China in the late 1990s. Afterwards, with its outstanding advantages such as convenient installation, reliable quality, and economic and environmental protection, it was quickly accepted and promoted in the domestic market. Under the active guidance of national regulations and policies, this technology has been widely applied in various fields such as fire water supply, domestic water supply, central air conditioning, sewage treatment, petrochemicals, thermal power, and military industry [1], gradually replacing the traditional pipeline connection methods of flange and welding, and becoming the leading technology for gas and liquid pipeline connection. Although the pipeline trench connection technology has been widely promoted and applied for a long time, due to various reasons such as insufficient understanding, lack of experience, and neglect of management by relevant personnel, common quality problems such as loose fittings and joint water seepage often occur. This article will analyze the causes of quality problems in pipeline trench connections from the perspectives of material selection, installation technology, and support (hanger) settings, and provide insights and experiences on ensuring the quality of pipeline trench connections.

  2、材料选择

2. Material selection

  2.1管材

2.1 Pipe materials

  2.1.1管道类型的选择

2.1.1 Selection of pipeline types

  管道类型是影响管道沟槽连接质量的一项重要因素。沟槽连接方式适用的管道类型较为广泛,《沟槽式连接管道工程技术规程》(CECS151∶2003)指出:“沟槽连接方式可用于镀锌焊接钢管和焊接钢管、镀锌无缝钢管和无缝钢管、不锈钢管等,或内壁涂塑或衬塑的上述各种管材。”但是,由于焊缝形式对钢管沟槽连接质量有一定影响,焊接钢管的焊缝突出,不利于钢管的压槽。因此,在安装施工时应无缝钢管,其次是直缝焊管,避免选用螺旋焊管。如确需使用螺旋焊管,也应配套使用相应的沟槽管件,如上海威逊就为螺旋钢管设计配备了带沟槽短管的超越式接头和凸缘式接头,以此了螺旋钢管沟槽连接的接口密封难题。

The type of pipeline is an important factor affecting the quality of pipeline trench connections. The groove connection method is applicable to a wide range of pipeline types. The "Technical Specification for Groove Connection Pipeline Engineering" (CECS151:2003) points out that "the groove connection method can be used for galvanized welded steel pipes and welded steel pipes, galvanized seamless steel pipes and seamless steel pipes, stainless steel pipes, etc., or various types of pipes with inner wall coated or lined with plastic." However, due to the influence of weld seam form on the quality of steel pipe groove connection, the weld seam of welded steel pipes is protruding, which is not conducive to the groove pressing of steel pipes. Therefore, seamless steel pipes should be preferred during installation and construction, followed by straight seam welded pipes, and spiral welded pipes should be avoided. If it is necessary to use spiral welded pipes, corresponding groove fittings should also be used. For example, Shanghai Weixun has designed spiral steel pipes with groove short pipes and flange joints to solve the interface sealing problem of spiral steel pipe groove connections.

  2.1.2管道的质量要求

2.1.2 Quality requirements for pipelines

  由于沟槽管件与管道外壁接合,因此,管道外径偏差过量将使管道与卡箍不匹配,会造成接头渗水。此外,管材材质不合格,镀锌层不牢固,管壁厚度不足,都将会在压槽时可能造成管子断裂、镀锌层大量脱落或高频焊缝开裂,终导致接头渗水或断裂。因此,严格控制管材质量关重要。各类管材均应符合相应的标准,如镀锌焊接钢管应符合《低压流体输送用镀锌焊接钢管》(GB/T3091)的规定,无缝钢管应符合《输送流体用无缝钢管》(GB/T8163)的规定,涂塑镀锌焊接钢管和涂塑无缝钢管应符合《给水涂塑复合钢管》(CJ/T的规定等。此外,钢管壁厚还应满足小壁厚要求。

Due to the joint between the groove fittings and the outer wall of the pipeline, excessive deviation in the outer diameter of the pipeline will cause mismatch between the pipeline and the clamp, resulting in water seepage at the joint. In addition, substandard pipe materials, weak galvanized layer, and insufficient wall thickness may cause pipe fracture, significant detachment of galvanized layer, or high-frequency weld cracking during groove pressing, ultimately leading to joint seepage or fracture. Therefore, strict control of pipe quality is crucial. All types of pipes should comply with corresponding national standards. For example, galvanized welded steel pipes should comply with the provisions of "Galvanized Welded Steel Pipes for Low Pressure Fluid Transportation" (GB/T3091), seamless steel pipes should comply with the provisions of "Seamless Steel Pipes for Fluid Transportation" (GB/T8163), coated galvanized welded steel pipes and coated seamless steel pipes should comply with the provisions of "Composite Steel Pipes for Water Supply Coating" (CJ/T), etc. In addition, the wall thickness of the steel pipes should also meet the minimum wall thickness requirements.

  2.1.3管口的圆整度控制

2.1.3 Control of roundness of pipe openings

  管口的圆整度不足也是影响管道沟槽连接质量的重要原因。施工前,应对进场管材的圆整度进行检查。检查可按照下述方法进行:将管道截面分为8等分,分别测量4条直径尺寸,与标准值进行对比。凡圆整度不达标的管段应整圆或切除。

The insufficient roundness of the pipe mouth is also an important reason affecting the quality of pipeline groove connection. Before construction, the roundness of the incoming pipes should be checked. The inspection can be carried out according to the following method: divide the pipeline section into 8 equal parts, measure 4 diameter sizes separately, and compare them with the standard values. Any pipe section that does not meet the roundness standard should be rounded or cut off.

  管道的圆整度不达标,往往是由于运输或装卸过程中管道遭受碰撞或管材相互挤压所造成。韩国在管材运输中有很好的经验,该国的工程技术人员采用在管端头装设十字支撑架的办法,较好地了管道受压变形的问题,值得学习和推广。

The roundness of pipelines that do not meet the standard is often caused by collisions or mutual compression of pipes during transportation or loading and unloading. South Korea has good experience in pipe transportation, and its engineering and technical personnel have adopted the method of installing cross support frames at the pipe ends, which effectively solves the problem of pipeline compression deformation and is worth learning and promoting.

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  2.2沟槽管件

2.2 Trench fittings

  2.2.1壳体材质的选择

2.2.1 Selection of shell material

  沟槽管件的壳体材质有球墨铸铁、铸钢或锻钢等几种,不同材质的沟槽管件耐压性能不同,脆性、抗疲劳性能等也有所区别,应根据工程实际需要合理选用。

There are several types of shell materials for groove fittings, such as ductile iron, cast steel, or forged steel. Different materials of groove fittings have different pressure resistance, brittleness, and fatigue resistance, and should be selected reasonably according to the actual needs of the project.

  2.2.2橡胶密封圈的选择

2.2.2 Selection of rubber sealing rings

  橡胶密封圈分为天然橡胶、合成橡胶、硅橡胶等几大类,应根据管道传输介质的性质和温度、使用场合等需求正确选用。输送生活饮用水的管道可采用天然橡胶、合成橡胶或硅橡胶,并应符合《生活饮用水输配水设备及防护材料的性评价标准》(GB/T17219)和现行有关标准的规定;输送含油和化学品等介质的管道应采用合成橡胶;输送空调冷却水的管道,由于使用环境及系统季节性运行的要求,需要橡胶密封圈具有一定的抗疲劳、抗老化性能,因此,应优先选用合成橡胶或硅橡胶。

Rubber sealing rings are divided into several categories, including natural rubber, synthetic rubber, silicone rubber, etc. They should be selected correctly according to the properties and temperature of the pipeline transmission medium, as well as the needs of the usage situation. The pipelines for transporting drinking water can use natural rubber, synthetic rubber, or silicone rubber, and should comply with the national "Safety Evaluation Standards for Drinking Water Transportation and Distribution Equipment and Protective Materials" (GB/T17219) and the relevant national standards currently in use; Synthetic rubber should be used for pipelines transporting media such as oil and chemicals; Due to the requirements of the operating environment and seasonal operation of the system, the pipes conveying cooling water for air conditioners need rubber seals with certain fatigue resistance and aging resistance. Therefore, synthetic rubber or silicone rubber should be preferred.

  2.2.3正确选择沟槽管件类型

2.2.3 Correct selection of trench pipe fittings type

  沟槽管件有多种类型,其中刚性接头与挠性接头,开孔式机械三通、四通与沟槽式三通、四通,单片法兰与沟槽法兰等,作用类似,但使用场合却有所区别。在安装前,应对各种接头及配件的性能、使用条件做深入的了解,做到正确选用。

There are various types of grooved pipe fittings, including rigid joints and flexible joints, perforated mechanical tees, tees and grooved tees, tees, single piece flanges and grooved flanges, etc., with similar functions but different usage scenarios. Before installation, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the performance and usage conditions of various joints and accessories to ensure correct selection.

  (1)刚性接头与挠性接头。在工程施工中,由于技术交底及质量监控的不到位,工人对刚性接头和挠性接头常常不加区分,随意使用,从而给整个管路系统的可靠运行和正常维护带来隐患。如:生活热水系统,系统运行温度与管道安装时的温度差值可达到60℃,钢管长6m,产生的热膨胀应力将达到1200kg/mm2。如果管道采用刚性连接,将会引起支架变形,并导致管道系统遭受破坏。因此,对接头管件应加以区分并合理选用。

(1) Rigid and flexible joints. In engineering construction, due to inadequate technical disclosure and quality monitoring, workers often indiscriminately use rigid and flexible joints, which poses hidden dangers to the reliable operation and normal maintenance of the entire pipeline system. For example, in a domestic hot water system, the difference between the operating temperature of the system and the temperature during pipeline installation can reach 60 ℃. With a steel pipe length of 6m, the thermal expansion stress generated will reach 1200kg/mm2. If the pipeline is rigidly connected, it will cause deformation of the support and result in damage to the pipeline system. Therefore, joint fittings should be distinguished and selected reasonably.

  ①生活热水管道、空调水管道、露天管道,为有效补偿因热胀冷缩所引起的管道位移,以上三类必须使用挠性接头,如果伸缩段的位移超过了挠性接头的总补偿量,还应考虑加装金属膨胀节。

① For domestic hot water pipelines, air conditioning water pipelines, and outdoor pipelines, in order to effectively compensate for pipeline displacement caused by thermal expansion and contraction, flexible joints must be used for the above three types. If the displacement of the expansion section exceeds the total compensation amount of the flexible joint, the installation of metal expansion joints should also be considered.

  ②温差变化不大的管道,如室内消防管道,可以大量使用刚性接头。但在长直管路的中段应安装一定数量的挠接头,用以补偿长直管段的少量热膨胀量,确保整个管道系统处于运行状态。

② Pipes with little temperature difference, such as indoor fire pipes, can use a large number of rigid joints. But a certain number of flexible joints should be installed in the middle section of the long straight pipeline to compensate for the small amount of thermal expansion in the long straight pipeline section, ensuring that the entire pipeline system is in a safe operating state.

  ③有温度补偿功能的弯管、折线形管道,应在其产生角变位的管段上安装挠性接头。

③ Flexible joints should be installed on the pipe sections that produce angular displacement in bent pipes and curved pipes with temperature compensation function.

  ④泵房管道则建议使用挠性接头,以减少噪声并削弱振动传导。

④ Flexible joints are recommended for pump room pipelines to reduce noise and weaken vibration transmission.

  ⑤埋地管道宜采用挠性接头,可有效应对不均匀沉降导致的管道系统局部变形。

⑤ Flexible joints should be used for buried pipelines to effectively cope with local deformation of the pipeline system caused by uneven settlement.

  ⑥小弧度弧形管道的连接,必须采用挠性管接头。可先按直线管道装配,再折转管道,使其达到预定转角。但无论在何种情况下其转角均不得超出沟槽管件说明书所限定的数值。

⑥ The connection of small arc pipelines must use flexible pipe joints. You can first assemble the pipeline in a straight line, and then bend the pipeline to reach the predetermined angle. However, in any case, its turning angle shall not exceed the value specified in the instruction manual of the trench fittings.

  (2)开孔式机械的三通、四通,与沟槽式的三通、四通相比,每个连接部位少用了2个沟槽式接头,从而降低了工程成本。但是由于开孔式机械三通、四通属马鞍形拼合式开孔套筒结构,与沟槽式三通、四通相比强度较弱。因此,在接头受力较大的部位应避免使用开孔式机械三通、四通,如在立管上设置支管的部位等。在横管上设置支管,可采用机械三通、四通,但支管的管径不得过大,必须保证钻孔后管道的强度不受到损害,否则容易发生管道渗漏。

(2) Compared with groove type tees and tees, the three-way and four-way of perforated machinery use two fewer groove type joints at each connection point, thereby reducing engineering costs. However, due to the saddle shaped assembled perforated sleeve structure of the perforated mechanical tee and cross, their strength is weaker compared to the grooved tee and cross. Therefore, in areas with high stress on the joint, the use of perforated mechanical tees and tees should be avoided, such as in areas where branch pipes are installed on the riser. Mechanical tees and tees can be used to install branch pipes on horizontal pipes, but the diameter of the branch pipe must not be too large. It is necessary to ensure that the strength of the pipeline after drilling is not damaged, otherwise pipeline leakage may occur.

  (3)单片法兰与沟槽法兰在大多数情况下可以互用,但单片法兰在与蝶阀相连接时,两者的密封橡胶接触,不易紧密固定连接,容易造成接口渗水。因此,在蝶阀与法兰连接时应采用沟槽法兰,避免使用单片法兰。2.2.4沟槽管件的质量要求工程中出现的卡箍断裂、橡胶密封圈损坏、紧固件螺栓断裂等质量问题,很大程度上是由于不恰当地选用沟槽管件或使用质量低劣的沟槽管件所造成。因此,应从进货、检验、技术等方面严格把关,避免不适用、不合格产品进入施工环节。

(3) Single piece flange and groove flange can be used interchangeably in most cases, but when connected to a butterfly valve, the sealing rubber of the two is in contact, making it difficult to tightly fix the connection and easily causing water leakage at the interface. Therefore, groove flanges should be used when connecting butterfly valves to flanges to avoid using single piece flanges. Quality requirements for trench fittings in section 2.2.4. Quality issues such as broken clamps, damaged rubber sealing rings, and broken fasteners and bolts in engineering are largely caused by improper selection of trench fittings or the use of low-quality trench fittings. Therefore, strict control should be exercised in aspects such as procurement, inspection, and technology to prevent unsuitable and unqualified products from entering the construction process.

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