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川消:如何进行火灾预防?

来源:http://www.cx-fire.com/ 日期:2024-05-10

  如何进行火灾预防?

How to carry out fire prevention?

  一、火灾预防基本观念

1、 Basic concepts of fire prevention

  1.火的形成需要下列三个条件:即可燃物、空气和火源,三者缺一即无法形成。

1. The formation of fire requires the following three conditions: combustibles, air, and fire source. If one of the three is missing, it cannot form.

  2.对火灾扑救,通常采用窒息(隔绝空气),冷却(降低温度)和拆除(移去可燃物)等三种。

2. For firefighting, three methods are usually used: suffocation (isolating air), cooling (reducing temperature), and dismantling (removing combustibles).

  二、火灾分类(GB/T4968-2008)

2、 Fire classification (GB/T4968-2008)

  根据可燃物的类型和燃烧特性,火灾分为A、B、C、D、E、F六类。

According to the type and combustion characteristics of combustibles, fires are divided into six categories: A, B, C, D, E, and F.

  (1)A类火灾:指固体物质火灾。这种物质通常具有有机物质性质,一般在燃烧时能产生灼热的余烬。如木材、煤、棉、毛、麻、纸张等火灾。

(1) Class A fire: refers to a solid material fire. This substance usually has organic properties and can produce scorching ashes during combustion. Fires such as wood, coal, cotton, wool, hemp, paper, etc.

  (2)B类火灾:指液体或可熔化的固体物质火灾。如煤油、柴油、原油,甲醇、乙醇、沥青、石蜡等火灾。

(2) Class B fire: refers to a fire caused by liquid or melted solid substances. Such as kerosene, diesel, crude oil, methanol, ethanol, asphalt, paraffin, and other fires.

  (3)C类火灾:指气体火灾。如煤气、天然气、甲烷、乙烷、丙烷、氢气等火灾。

(3) Class C fire: refers to gas fire. Such as coal gas, natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, and other fires.

  (4)D类火灾:指金属火灾。如钾、钠、镁、铝镁合金等火灾。

(4) Class D fire: refers to metal fires. Fire hazards such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, aluminum magnesium alloys, etc.

  (5)E类火灾:带电火灾。物体带电燃烧的火灾。

(5) Class E fire: live fire. Fire caused by charged objects burning.

  (6)F类火灾:烹饪器具内的烹饪物(如动植物油脂)火灾。

(6) Class F fire: Fire caused by cooking materials (such as animal and vegetable fats) inside cooking utensils.

  三、火灾等级

3、 Fire level

  根据2007年6月26日,公安部下发的《关于调整火灾等级标准的通知》,新的火灾等级标准由原来的特大火灾、重大火灾、一般火灾三个等级调整为特别重大火灾、重大火灾、较大火灾和一般火灾四个等级。

According to the Notice on Adjusting the Fire Level Standards issued by the Ministry of Public Security on June 26, 2007, the new fire level standards have been adjusted from the original three levels of major fires, major fires, and general fires to four levels: particularly major fires, major fires, major fires, and general fires.

  (1)Ⅰ 特别重大火灾:指造成30人以上死亡,或者100人以上重伤,或者1亿元以上直接财产损失的火灾。

(1) Special major fire: refers to a fire that causes more than 30 deaths, more than 100 serious injuries, or direct property damage of over 100 million yuan.

  (2)Ⅱ 重大火灾:指造成10人以上30人以下死亡,或者50人以上100人以下重伤,或者5000万元以上1亿元以下直接财产损失的火灾。

(2) II Major fire: refers to a fire that causes 10 to 30 deaths, 50 to 100 serious injuries, or direct property damage of 50 million to 100 million yuan.

  (3)Ⅲ 较大火灾:指造成3人以上10人以下死亡,或者10人以上50人以下重伤,或者1000万元以上5000万元以下直接财产损失的火灾。

(3) III Major fire: refers to a fire that causes 3 to 10 deaths, 10 to 50 serious injuries, or direct property damage of 10 to 50 million yuan.

  (4)Ⅳ 一般火灾:指造成3人以下死亡,或者10人以下重伤,或者1000万元以下直接财产损失的火灾。

(4) IV General fire: refers to a fire that causes less than 3 deaths, less than 10 serious injuries, or direct property damage of less than 10 million yuan.

  四、灭火器的种类及常见的使用方法

4、 Types and common usage methods of fire extinguishers

  灭火器在火灾预防中是一种十分重要的工具,是可由人力移动的轻便灭火器具,它能在其内部压力作用下,将所充装的灭火剂喷出,用来扑救火灾。灭火器种类繁多,其适用范围也有所不同,只有正确选择灭火器的类型,才能有效地扑救不同种类的火灾,达到预期的效果。我国现行的标准将灭火器分为手提式灭火器(总重量不大于20kg)和车推式灭火器(总重量不大于40kg以上)。下面就人们经常见到和接触到手提式灭火器的分类、适用及使用方法作简要的介绍。

Fire extinguisher is a very important tool in fire prevention, which is a portable fire extinguishing device that can be moved by manpower. It can spray the filled extinguishing agent under its internal pressure to extinguish fires. There are various types of fire extinguishers, and their applicability varies. Only by selecting the correct type of fire extinguisher can different types of fires be effectively extinguished and the expected results be achieved. The current national standard in our country divides fire extinguishers into portable fire extinguishers (with a total weight not exceeding 20kg) and wheeled fire extinguishers (with a total weight not exceeding 40kg). Below is a brief introduction to the classification, applicability, and usage methods of portable fire extinguishers that people often see and come into contact with.

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  (一)灭火器按充装的灭火剂可分为五类

(1) Fire extinguishers can be classified into five categories based on the amount of fire extinguishing agent they are filled with

  1.干粉类的灭火器。充装的灭火剂主要有两种,即碳酸氢钠和磷酸铵盐灭火剂。

1. Dry powder fire extinguishers. There are mainly two types of fire extinguishing agents filled, namely sodium bicarbonate and ammonium phosphate fire extinguishing agents.

  2.二氧化碳灭火器。

2. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers.

  3.泡沫型灭火器。

3. foam fire extinguisher.

  4.水型灭火器。

4. Water type fire extinguishers.

  5.卤代烷型灭火器(俗称“1211”灭火器和“1301”灭火器)。

5. Halogenated alkane type fire extinguishers (commonly known as "1211" fire extinguishers and "1301" fire extinguishers).

  (二)灭火器按驱动灭火器的压力型式可分为三类

(2) Fire extinguishers can be divided into three categories based on the pressure type of the driving fire extinguisher

  1.化学反应式灭火器:灭火剂由灭火器内化学反应产生的气体压力驱动的灭火器。

1. Chemical reaction fire extinguisher: A fire extinguisher driven by the pressure of gas generated by chemical reactions inside the fire extinguisher.

  2.贮气式灭火器:灭火剂由灭火器上的贮气瓶释放的压缩气体的或液化气体的压力驱动的灭火器。

2. Gas storage fire extinguisher: A fire extinguisher driven by the pressure of compressed gas or liquefied gas released from the gas storage cylinder on the fire extinguisher.

  3.贮压式灭火器:灭火剂由灭火器同一容器内的压缩气体或灭火蒸气的压力驱动的灭火器。

3. Pressure storage fire extinguisher: A fire extinguisher driven by the pressure of compressed gas or extinguishing vapor in the same container as the fire extinguisher.

  (三)不同类型的火灾灭火器的选择

(3) Selection of different types of fire extinguishers

  1.干粉类的灭火器。又分碳酸氢钠和磷酸铵盐灭火剂。碳酸氢钠灭火剂用于扑救B、C类火灾;磷酸铵盐灭火剂用于扑救A、B、C、E类火灾。

1. Dry powder fire extinguishers. It is further divided into sodium bicarbonate and ammonium phosphate fire extinguishing agents. Sodium bicarbonate fire extinguishing agent is used to extinguish Class B and C fires; Ammonium phosphate fire extinguishing agents are used to extinguish Class A, B, C, and E fires.

  2.二氧化碳灭火器:二氧化碳灭火器适用于扑救B、C、E类火灾,使用方法:a)拔出保险插销:b)握住喇叭喷嘴和阀门压把;c)压下压把即受内部高压喷出。缺点:使用人员极易冻伤。

2. Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher: Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are suitable for extinguishing Class B, C, and E fires. Instructions for use: a) Pull out the safety pin; b) Hold the horn nozzle and valve handle; c) Pressing down on the handle will result in internal high-pressure spraying. Disadvantage: Users are highly susceptible to frostbite.

  3.泡沫灭火器:适用AB类火灾,分为化学泡沫和机械泡沫两种,其中化学泡沫使用时颠倒使用,现已淘汰,而机械泡沫使用方法同于粉灭火剂。缺点:造成污染,不可使用于C类火灾,每四个月检查一次,药剂一年更换。

3. foam extinguisher: It is applicable to Class AB fire and can be divided into chemical foam and mechanical foam. Chemical foam is used upside down and has been eliminated, while mechanical foam is used in the same way as powder extinguishing agent. Disadvantage: It causes pollution and cannot be used in Class C fires. It should be checked every four months and the chemicals should be replaced once a year.

  4.清水灭火器:它适合灭A类火灾,不适合扑灭其它类火灾。采用拍击法:先将清水灭火器直立放稳,摘下保护帽,用手掌拍击开启杠顶端的凸头,水流便会从喷嘴喷出。

4. Clear water fire extinguisher: It is most suitable for extinguishing Class A fires and not suitable for extinguishing other types of fires. Using the tapping method: First, place the clean water fire extinguisher upright and steady, remove the protective cap, and use the palm to tap the protruding head at the top of the opening rod, and the water will spray out from the nozzle.

  5.卤代烷型灭火器。扑救A、B、C、E类火灾。

5. Halogenated alkane type fire extinguishers. Extinguish Class A, B, C, and E fires.

  (四)常见灭火器的使用方法

(4) Common usage methods of fire extinguishers

  常用的手提式灭火器有三种:干粉灭火器、二氧化碳灭火器和手提式卤代型灭火器,其中卤代型灭火器由于对环境保护有影响,已不提倡使用。

There are three commonly used portable fire extinguishers: dry powder fire extinguishers, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, and portable halogenated fire extinguishers. Among them, halogenated fire extinguishers are no longer recommended for use due to their impact on environmental protection.

  1、不能颠倒使用;

1. Cannot be used upside down;

  2、占据火势上风或侧上风方向;

2. Occupy the upwind or side windward direction of the fire;

  3、保持适当距离(一般4-5米,干粉2-3米);

3. Maintain an appropriate distance (usually 4-5 meters, 2-3 meters for dry powder);

  4、拔去保险销,一手握住开启压把,另一手紧握喷枪,用力捏紧开启压把;

4. Remove the safety pin, hold the opening handle with one hand and the spray gun with the other, and squeeze the opening handle tightly with force;

  5、对准火焰根部喷射;由远及近,水平喷射;

5. Spray at the base of the flame; Spray horizontally from far to near;

  6、火焰未灭,不轻易放松压把。

6. The flame is not extinguished, do not easily relax the pressure handle.

  注意:二氧化碳灭火器使用时, 不能直接用手抓住喇叭筒外壁或金属连线管, 防止手被冻伤。

Attention: When using carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, do not directly grab the outer wall of the horn or the metal connecting pipe with your hands to prevent frostbite.

  (五)常见灭火器标志的识别

(5) Identification of common fire extinguisher markings

  灭火器铭牌常贴在筒身上或印刷在筒身上,并应有下列内容,在使用前应详细阅读。

The nameplate of a fire extinguisher is often affixed or printed on the cylinder, and should include the following information. Before use, it should be carefully read.

  1灭火器的名称、型号和灭火剂类型。

1. The name, model, and type of extinguishing agent of the fire extinguisher.

  2.灭火器的灭火种类和灭火级别。要特别注意的是,对不适应的灭火种类,其用途代码符号是被红线划过去的。

2. The type and level of fire extinguishing of the fire extinguisher. It should be noted that for unsuitable fire extinguishing types, their usage code symbols are marked with a red line.

  3灭火器的使用温度范围。

The operating temperature range of 3 fire extinguishers.

  4.灭火器驱动器气体名称和数量。

4. Fire extinguisher driver gas name and quantity.

  5.灭火器生产许可证编号或认可标记。

5. Fire extinguisher production license number or approval mark.

  6.生产日期、制造厂家名称。

6. Production date and manufacturer name.

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